List of publications derived from the ImAc project.

Belén Agulló & Pilar Orero (2017). 3D Movie Subtitling: Searching for the best viewing experience. Studi di Comunicazione e Mediazione linguistica e culturale COME 2 (1) 91-102. Retrieved from



Other publications

List of bibliographical references we are using as a basis for our tests in the project organised by sections:

User experience in immersive environment

Ceballos, B. (2016). Testing the User Experience of Virtual Reality. Retrieved from

Tullis, T., & Albert, B. (2013). Measuring the User Experience: Collecting, Analyzing, and Presenting Usability Metrics: Second Edition.

Subtitles in immersive environment

Brown, A. (2017). Designing Subtitles for 360° Content. Bbc R&D, 1–6. Retrieved from

Brown, A. (2017). User Testing Subtitles for 360° Content. BBC Research & Development. Retrieved on 02/11/2017 from

Kruger, J.L., Soto-Sanfiel., M. T., Doherty, S. & Ibrahim, R. (2016). Towards a cognitive audiovisual translatology: Subtitles and embodied cognition, In Muñoz R. (Ed.) Reembedding Translation Process Research. London: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 171–194.

Wissmath, B., Weibel, D. & Groner, R. (2009). Dubbing or Subtitling? Effects on Spatial Presence, Transportation, Flow, and Enjoyment, Journal of Media Psychology, 21(3), 114–125.

AD in immersive environment

Caro, M. R. (2016). Testing audio narration: the emotional impact of language in audio description. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 24(4), 606–634.

Fryer, L., & Freeman, J. (2012). Presence in those with and without sight: Audio description and its potential for virtual reality applications. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 5(1), 15–23.

Fryer, L., & Freeman, J. (2013). Visual Impairment and Presence: Measuring the Effect of Audio Description. In H. Witchel (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2013 Inputs-Outputs Conference: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Engagement in HCI and Performance, ACM.

Fryer, L. (2013). Putting It Into Words : The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perception , Experience and Presence. Retrieved from

Fryer, L., & Freeman, J. (2014). Can you feel what I’m saying? The impact of verbal information on emotion elicitation and presence in people with a visual impairment. In Felnhofer, A., Kothgassner, O. D. (Eds.), Challenging presence: Proceedings of the 15th international conference on presence.

RNIB, (2011). Do we need 3D Audio Description guidelines: Recommendations from focus group study. Retrieved from

Ramos, M. (2015). The emotional experience of films: Does audio description make a difference? Translator. St. Jerome Publishing.

Ramos, M., & Rojo, A. M. (2014). “Feeling” audio description Exploring the impact of AD on emotional response. Translation Spaces, 3, 133–150.

Ramos Caro, M. (2016) Testing audio narration: the emotional impact of language in audio description. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 24, 1–29.

Romero-Fresco, P., & Fryer, L. (2013). Could Audio Described Films benefit from Audio Introductions? A Reception Study with AD Users. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, July-August, 287–295.

Walczak, A., & Fryer, L. (2017). Creative description: The impact of audio description style on presence in visually impaired audiences. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 35(1), 6–17.

Walczak, A. (2017). Immersion in audio description. The impact of style and vocal delivery on users’ experience. PhD thesis: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Retrieved from

Wilken, N., & Kruger, J.-L. (2016). Putting the audience in the picture: Mise-en-shot and psychological immersion in audio described film. Across Languages and Cultures, 17(2), 251–270.

Measuring presence and presence-related concepts in immersive environments

Busselle, R., Bilandzic, H. (2009). Measuring Narrative Engagement. Media Psychology, 12(4), 321–347.

Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T. B., & Slater, M. (1995). Presence and performance within virtual environments. In W. Barfield & T. A. Furness (Eds.), Virtual environments and advanced interface design, New York: Oxford University Press, 473–541.

Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotion Elicitation using Films. Cognition and Emotion, 9(1), 87–108.

Lombard, M., & Jones, M. T. (2015). Defining presence. In Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement and Technology (pp. 13–34). Springer International Publishing.

Lombard, M., & Ditton, T. (2006). At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2).

Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., & Davidoff, J. (2001). A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 282–297.

Patrick, A. S., Singer, J., Corrie, B., Noel, S., El Khatib, K., Emond, B., Zimmerman, T., & Marsh, S. (2004). A QoE sensitive architecture for advanced collaborative environments. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wired/Wireless Networks (QSHINE’04), Dallas, Texas, USA.

Rosakranse, C., & Oh, S. Y. (2014). Presence Questionaire Use Trends Measuring Presence: The Use Trends of Five Canonical Presence Questionaires from 1998-2012. International Society on Presence Research, 25–30.

Slater, M., & Usoh, M. (1993). Representations systems, perceptual position, and presence in immersive virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, 2, 221–233.

Volderer, P., Klimmt, C., Ritterfield, U. (2004). Enjoyment: At the heart of media entertainment. Communication Theory, 14(4), 388–408.

Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225–240.

European reports

European Broadcasting Union (2017). Virtual Reality: How are public broadcasters using it? Retrieved from

Accessibility and human rights

Greco G. (2016). On accessibility as a human right, with an application to media accessibility, In Matamala A., Orero P. (Eds.), Researching audio description: New approaches, London: Palgrave, 11–33

Physiological measurements

Malińska, M., Zużewicz, K., Bugajska, J., & Grabowski, A. (2015). Heart rate variability (HRV) during virtual reality immersion. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 21(1), 47–54.

Wilson, G. M., & Sasse, A. (2000). Do users always know what’s good for them? Utilising physiological responses to assess media quality. In In HCI 2000: People and Computers XIV – Usability or Else (pp. 327–339). Sunderland, UK: Springer.